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Monday, June 29, 2009

GRE biochemistry Biology test

In This Gre biochemistry and biology test Chose the right answer

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17. Given the same temperature of O0C, which of the following liquids has the highest surface tension?
1. benzene
2. ethanol
3. acetone
4. water
5. Glycerine

18. Which property of any liquid can support the weight of a needle?
1. polar bonds
2. polarity
3. high surface tension
4. high heat of vaporization
5. capillarity

19. Which property of water is best demonstrated in the rise of water within xylem vessels of plants?
1. polarity
2. surface tension
3. capillarity
4. high specific heat
5. proton pump

20. Water spontaneously rises through capillary tubes. What is the relationship between the inside diameter of the tubes and the height of the water column?
1. inversely proportional, i.e. the smaller the diameter, the lower is the water column
2. directly proportional, i.e. the bigger the diameter, the higher the water column
3. no relationship, i.e. the rise of water is independent of the diameter
4. negative relationship, i.e. the bigger the diameter, the failure of water to rise
5. positive relationship, the smaller the diameter, the faster the rise of water

21. How much heat is needed to evaporate a liquid with high heat of vaporization compared to those having low heat of vaporization?
1. more heat
2. less heat
3. equal heat
4. no heat
5. none of the above

22. In your experiment using a continuous membrane of water, the membrane is permeable in which condition?
1. membrane of water sandwiched between chloroform and ether
2. membrane of water sandwiched between chloroform and xylene
3. membrane of water sandwiched between chloroform and acetone
4. membrane of water sandwiched between chloroform and ethyl alcohol
5. all of the above

23. What is the process by which liquids pass through the water membrane?
1. osmosis
2. diffusion
3. absorption
4. differential permeability
5. solubility

24. The water potential of a solution may be expressed as
1. atmospheres (atmp)
2. megaPascals (MPas)
3. bars
4. grams/cm3
5. all of the above

25. Which of the following is the expression of the water potential of pure water?
1. ψ <>0
3. ψ = 0
4. ψ ± 0
5. ψ ≤ 0

26. Name of the process that results on the change in weight of potato cylinders soaked in different concentrations of sucrose solutions?
1. diffusion
2. absorption
3. permeability
4. turgidity
5. flaccidity

Continue the GRE biochemistry Biology test

27. When potato cylinders were soaked in 0.7 M sucrose solution, what caused the percent weight change?
1. accumulation of water
2. accumulation of sucrose
3. accumulation of both water and sucrose
4. exit of water
5. exit of organelles

28. Which of the following has the most negative water potential?
1. potato cylinders previously soaked in distilled water
2. potato cylinders soaked in 0.1 M sucrose solution
3. a plant after a heavy rain
4. wilted plant in dry soil
5. none of the above

29. Cytoplasmic and cell membranes of lower epidermal cells in Rhoeo spathacea are permeable to
1. weak acid or base
2. strong acid or base
3. water
4. anthocyanin
5. A, B and C are correct

30. Which of these plant pigments is colored pink to blue-violet?
1. chlorophyll
2. xanthophylls
3. carotenoids
4. anthocyanin
5. none of the above

31. Anthocyanin can diffuse through
1. vacuolar membrane or tonoplast
2. cell membrane
3. cell wall
4. all of the above
5. none of the above

32. What were the findings in your experiment regarding the pH of anthocyanin?
1. acidic
2. basic
3. neutral
4. immeasurable
5. none of these

33. In which sugar solution does Hydrilla cells most likely undergo plasmolysis?
1. 0.1 M
2. 0.2 M
3. 0.4 M
4. 0.6 M
5. 0.8 M

34. Plasmolysis occurs if a plant cell (ψ < 0) is placed in
1. a solution with more negative water potential
2. a solution with water potential equal to zero
3. a solution with less water potential
4. hypotonic solution
5. any of the above

35. What is/are the base(s) of the differences of the membrane permeability?
1. size of the diffusing molecules
2. solubility of diffusing molecules with membrane molecules
3. concentration gradient
4. all of the above
5. none of the above

36. When the water potential of the plant cell sap is equal to that of its surrounding solution, it is said to be in equilibrium thus
1. the cell is turgid
2. there no net movement of water
3. the cell is in incipient plasmolysis
4. osmotic potential of cell sap is equal to pressure potential
5. none of the above

37. When the lower epidermal cells of Rhoeo spathacea was added with a strong base like ammonium hydroxide, what resulted
1. cytoplasm shrank and colored dark pink
2. cytoplasm shrank and colored greenish blue
3. cytoplasm become turgid and colored pink
4. cytoplasm become turgid and colored greenish blue
5. none of the above

38. Catalase is an enzyme named according to
1. its substrate
2. its effectiveness
3. its action
4. all of the above
5. none of the above

39. Which of these combinations of enzymes and substrate give the highest (maximum) effervescence?
1. sand + hydrogen peroxide
2. water + hydrogen peroxide
3. potato cylinder + hydrogen peroxide
4. macerated potato cube + hydrogen peroxide
5. none of the above

40. How would you know that there is breakdown of hydrogen peroxide is caused by the action of an enzyme catalase?
1. no evolution of oxygen gas
2. considerable evolution of oxygen gas
3. evolution of carbon dioxide gas
4. utilization of oxygen gas
5. evolution of hydrogen gas
41. Catalase activity is effective only at which pH?
1. slightly acidic
2. strongly acidic
3. slightly basic
4. strongly basic
5. neutral
42. In a chemical reaction between enzyme and its substrate what are produced?
1. reaction products
2. heat
3. reactants
4. all of the above
5. both A and B

43. How many calorie(s) is needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 10 C?
1. one calorimeter
2. one calorie
3. one Kilocalorie
4. one centigrade
5. one Celsius
44. How does temperature affect activity of catalase on hydrogen peroxide?
1. At very low temperature, enzyme activity is very low.
2. As the temperature increases, catalase activity rises because hydrogen peroxide molecules move faster and reach the active sites of the enzyme molecules more rapidly.
3. Enzyme activity reaches at a maximum at the optimum temperature.
4. A further increase in temperature results in the drastic drop in enzyme activity because the enzyme molecules being proteins, are denatured and cannot work properly
5. all of the above are true.

45. In testing the product of photosynthesis, why was the leaf boiled before it was put in alcohol?
1. To ensure that the leaf undergone photosynthesis so that starch is accumulated.
2. To stimulate the leaf to hasten the process of photosynthesis.
3. To kill the cells and stop further chemical reactions that might use the stored starch.
4. To extract the chlorophyll that might block the location of starch.
5. All of the above are correct.

46. In the variegated gumamela leaf subjected to Iodine test for starch, what can you observe?
1. The originally white areas that turned brown showing starch is present.
2. The originally white areas that turned green showing starch is present.
3. The originally green areas have blue-black color indicating location of starch.
4. The originally green areas which turned brown indicating location of starch
5. Both green and white areas turned brown indicating the presence of starch.

47. Why is variegated leaf normally used in the experiment to verify the necessity of chlorophyll in photosynthesis?
1. It is efficient in the process of photosynthesis.
2. It has green regions with chlorophyll and non-green regions without chlorophyll.
3. It has even distribution of chlorophyll although not visible with the naked eye
4. It is the only leaf that responds to Iodine test for starch.
5. all of the above.

48. If the variegated leaf tested for starch show that starch may also be detected in both green and non-green regions. How would you explain this?
1. The sugar made in the green regions by photosynthesis may have been transported to the non-green region and stored as starch.
2. The direct product of photosynthesis in the non-green regions is in the form of starch.
3. The starch in the non-green region is not a product of photosysnthesis but by another process.
4. The starch in both green and non-green regions is not true starch.
5. Photosynthesis in the leaf does no always involve chlorophyll.

49. The pigment chlorophyll is most soluble in
1. acetone
2. 95% ethyl alcohol
3. water
4. xylol
5. none of the above

50. Fluorescence of chlorophyll is an inefficient utilization of light energy because
1. no potential chemical energy is produced
2. excess energy of its electrons is dissipated as heat and light energy
3. energy of its electrons is converted to ATP
4. all of the above
5. both A and B are correct

51. Chlorophyll molecule is soluble in an organic solvent because of its
1. carbon rings
2. pophyrin rings
3. hydrocarbon tail
4. benzene rings
5. all of the above

For the more tests and quizzes see the rest of the blog

I did not include the answers to the questions

Sunday, June 28, 2009

esl English tests

Esl English tests

Task 1

Read the advertisements for three different cinemas and write short answers to the questions below. There is one example given.

Watch History in Hollywood Films
Rustaveli Cinema
1-7 March

Monday through Friday 6pm, 8pm

North and South
Week-end 2pm, 4 pm, 8pm
Ticket price: morning shows 5 Laris evening shows 7 Laris
Special discount for children under 8.
5 Rustaveli Ave.
Attention: You can rent a video of films as well. Visit our website:

A Week of Modern British Film
Cinema House
March 1-7
Watch the films on the following days and time:

Footballers’ Wives
Monday to Friday 3pm, 6pm, 9pm

The Neighbours
Saturday-Sunday 3 pm, 6 pm
Ticket price: 6 Laris
no discount for children
Tickets can be ordered by phone.
Call 95 67 82 for the details
Address: 3 Javakhishvili St. Tbilisi

Watch the best of Georgian Films
Amirani Cinema
March 1-7

Londre: Monday – Wednesday
Sherekilebi: Thursday – Friday
Pirosmani: Saturday – Sunday

Order a ticket by email:
Or call 29 87 68
Free for children under 8.
Address: 4 Kostava St Tbilisi

And also: Enjoy a cup of coffee and fresh natural juice in our cafe before the show starts. Open for 24 hours.

Example: At what hours does Troy start? A t 6 pm a n d a t 8 pm.

1. Which cinema has an email address? ________________________
2. Which British film can you see on Saturday? _______________________
3. At which address is Cinema House located? ________________________
4. Which cinema has special discount for children? ___________________________
5. How many films can you see in a Week of British Film? _________________________
6. Which cinema offers free tickets to young children? ______________________
7. Which cinema has a website address? ______________________
8. How much do you pay if you want to see Troy in the evening? _______________________
9. Which cinema shows Georgian films? _______________________
10. In which cinema can you rent a video? ________________________

TiToeuli swori pasuxi iRebs erT qulas.

moswavlem am davalebaSi miiRo ------------ qula.

Task 2

Read the text about tea-making. Then read the sentences below and decide whether they are True (T) or False (F). Circle the right answer. There is one example given.

Tea – a popular drink

Tea is a non-alcoholic drink prepared by pouring boiling water over dried tea-leaves.
It is the most popular drink in many countries.

In 1990 about five and a half billion kilogrammes of dried tea were produced. India has always played an important role in world tea production. Today India produces about one and a half billion kilogrammes each year. China is the second largest producer of tea with about one billion kilogrammes every year. Other tea-producing countries are: Indonesia, Kenya and Sri Lanka.

Great Britain imports more tea than any other country: about 400 million kilogrammes every year. On average, about 7 kgs of tea are drunk by each person every year in Great Britain. People in the United States drink about 3 kilogrammes of tea per person each year.

The tea plant grows in tropical and subtropical climates. The plant is evergreen and grows quickly in low places where the air is warm. However, the finest tea comes from places between 400 and 1200 metres high, because the plant grows more slowly in cooler climates. Tea plants have small, white, sweet-smelling flowers and each flower produces three seeds that look like hazelnuts.

Workers pick the leaves off the bush by hand. A worker can pick about 18 kilogrammes of tea leaves a day, enough to make about 4 kilogrammes of manufactured tea. Machines are also used to pick tea leaves, but tea of the highest quality is generally produced from the leaves that have been picked by hand.

There are three main kinds of tea: black, green and oolong - a special kind of tea. They differ in the method used to process the leaves. The processing takes place either in a factory or near it. All tea-producing countries manufacture black tea, but the green and oolong tea comes from China, Japan and Taiwan.

Example: Tea is an evergreen plant, which grows as a bush…………………….. T F

1. People drink tea in many countries. ………………………… ………,,……. T F
2. Every year India produces half a billion kilogrammes of tea. ……………… T F
3. The second biggest tea-producing country is China. ………………………… T F
4. Britain buys more tea than any other country every year. ……………………… T F
5. One person in the USA drinks about 4 kgs of tea a year. ……………………… T F
6. Tea plants grow in high places where the air is cool………………………… T F
7. The seeds of the tea plant look like hazelnuts…………………………… ….. T F
8. You need to pick eighty kgs of tea leaves to make 4 kgs of tea……………….. T F
9. The best quality tea is picked only by hand……………………………………. T F
10. The three kinds of tea differ only in smell. …………………………………. T F
11. The processing of tea leaves always takes place in the factory………………. T F
12. Black tea is produced by every tea-producing country. ……………………… T F

TiToeuli swori pasuxi iRebs erT qulas.

moswavlem am davalebaSi miiRo ------------ qula.

Task 3

Read the text about young Americans who fight for peace. Then match the headings
(A-H) with the paragraphs (1-6). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning.

A Peace protesters believe in America
B Americans agains war
C It’s children who suffer
D The story of one young American
E Criticizing America
F War brings no harm
G First-time protesters
H Proud parents

Young Americans for peace

0._ E_
Many countries criticize America for using its military power to get what it wants. But not all Americans believe in war. Many young Americans hate war and some of them are even prepared to give their lives for peace.

1. ___
Before the war with Iraq, more than a million Americans protested against the war. There were crowds of about 100,000 people in both New York and Washington DC. These were the largest protests against war since those against the Vietnam War of the 1960s and 1970s.

At these protests there were people of different backgrounds, religions and ages, including many teenagers. A lot of people there were protesting for the first time. People had many different reasons for protesting against the war, like Billy Noseworthy, 18 and Erica Lillquist, 17. Billy’s religion doesn’t allow war. ‘You should not dehumanize* anybody and war is the worst example of dehumanization’, he explained. Erica isn’t against all war but she prefers diplomatic solutions.

Many Americans are very patriotic and some people thought that the protesters were anti-American. ‘The anti-war movement doesn’t have to support Saddam Hussein’, said Seth Green, a 27-year-old American who was at the San Francisco march*. Seth says that he wanted ‘to send the message that you can believe America is a great country and still be anti-war.’

Some young Americans are more extreme in their political views about peace. Rachel Corrie was a 20-year-old anti-war protester. She organized peace events when she was a teenager in Washington State where she grew up. In 2002 she arrived in Israel to protest against the war.

Rachel Corrie worked with other activists from the international Solidarity Movement. The Israeli army killed her when she was trying to stop them destroying a Palestinian building. Rachel’s parents believed what their daughter did was right. They were very proud of her. ‘Rachie was filled with love and a sense of duty to our fellow men and she gave her life trying to protect those people who could not protect themselves’, Rachel’s father said.

War harms everyone, especially children. The statistics show that the number of children who, as a result of war, have been separated from their families is more than one million. Much higher is the number of those who have been killed or disabled.

*dehumanise – gaboroteba, делать бесчеловечным *a march _ demonstracia, демонстрация

TiToeuli swori pasuxi iRebs or qulas.

moswavlem am davalebaSi miiRo ------------ qula.

Task 4
Reading /Vocabulary

• Read the text about Valentine’s day and fill the gaps with the words from the box.
Each word can be used only once and one word is extra. There is one example given.

ancient celebrated centuries fall festival history

imprisoned letter listen love religion started think

Festival of love
Valentine's Day has a long history. Some people (0) t h i n k that Valentine’s Day started in ___________________ (1) Rome to honour its legendary founders. During the _________________ (2), young men would take out the names of women from a box. Often they would ___________________(3) in love and marry. Others say that Valentine’s Day ____________________ (4) when Rome was facing wars. The men refused to join the army. Emperor Claudius II believed that the reason was their sweethearts* and abolished* all marriages.
One priest* Valentine did not _________________ (5) to the order and secretly performed marriage ceremonies. Valentine was ___________________ (6) and put to death on 14 February. While in prison Valentine fell in ________________ (7) with the prison- keeper’s daughter and signed his final ________________ (8) to her with the words: "From your Valentine." In IV century Christianity became the official _________________ (9) of Rome, and 14 February was chosen as a religious festival. But through the_________________ (10), Valentine’s Day became to be remembered more as the festival of love than a religious day.
Today Valentine’s Day is_________________ (11) in the whole world despite people’s belief. Only in the US over 1 billion valentine cards are sent.
.*sweetheart –Seyvarebuli, возлюбленная *abolish – gauqmeba, отменять
*priest – mRvdeli, священник
TiToeuli swori pasuxi iRebs or qulas.
moswavlem am davalebaSi miiRo ---------- qula.

Task 5

• Read the first sentence. Then complete the second so that it means the same as the first. There is one example given.

Example: They speak German in Austria.
German i s s p o k e n i n A u s t r i a.

1. The dentist will examine my teeth tomorrow.
My teeth _____________________________________________________ tomorrow.

2. This building has five floors.
There____________________________________________ five floors in this building.

3. Giorgi runs faster than Beka does.
Beka does not ________________________________________________Giorgi does.

4. Hundreds of cars are imported from Germany every year.
They ____________________________________________ from Germany every year.

5. “I forgot my homework at home,” Tina told her teacher.
Tina told her teacher___________________________________her homework at home.

6. I asked Nina where she was going.
I asked Nina: “_________________________________________________________?”

7. My car was stolen last night.
Somebody ______________________________________________________last night.

8. Ann last saw Dato in January.
Ann _______________________________________________________ since January.

9. “Do you often go swimming?” Bob asked Tom.
Bob asked Tom ________________________________________________ swimming.

10. “Don’t come home late!” Father warned me.
Father warned me________________________________________________________.

11. Mary has been invited to the Christmas party by the Browns.
The Browns __________________________________________ to the Christmas party.

12. They are painting the buildings in blue colour.
The buildings ________________________________________________in blue colour.


TiToeuli swori pasuxi iRebs erT qulas.
moswavlem am davalebaSi miiRo -------- qula.

Task 6

• Put the verbs in brackets in the appropriate form. There is one example given.

An Australian farmer (0) o w e s his life to his pet kangaroo. Almost a year ago Len Richards, a farmer, (1) _______________________ (water) some flowers in his garden when a branch fell from a tree and (2) _______________________ (knock) him down. The farmer’s pet kangaroo, called Lulu, saw this. In order to save her patron, the kangaroo, (3) _______________________ (hop) over to the farm house, where the farmer’s family lived. When the kangaroo saw the farmer’s wife, it (4) ___________________ (start) to make a strange noise as if a dog (5) _______________________ (bark). The family rushed out and found the kangaroo standing over Mr. Richards' body.
Mr.Richards, (6) _______________________ (adopt) the baby kangaroo after her mother (7) _______________________ (kill) in a road accident last year. She followed him everywhere he went, and behaved like a dog. Now the kangaroo (8) ____________________ (be nominated) for an animal prize by Australian Nature Lovers’ Club.


Task 7

• Write one of the topics given below. Use about 120-150 words. Write in the given space.

A. Some people think that only a woman has to do the housework (wash dishes, clean the house, etc.). Other people believe that the housework should be devided among the family members.
• Which idea do you agree with and why?
• Give specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

B. Some people think that teenagers should have jobs while they are still in schools. Other people believe that teenagers are busy at schools and shouldn’t have jobs while studying.
• Which idea do you agree with and why?
• Give specific reasons and examples to support your answer.


davaleba 3


Task 1: 1. Amirani (cinema) 2. The Neighbours 3. 3 Javakhishvili St (Tbilisi) 4. Rustaveli (cinema) 5. Two/2 6. Amirani (cinema) 7. Rustaveli (cinema) 8. Seven / 7 Laris
9. Amirani (cinema) 10. (In) Rustaveli (cinema)

Task 2 : 1. T 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. T 8. F 9. T 10. F 11. F 12. T

Task 3: 1. B 2. G 3. A 4. D 5. H 6. C

Task 4: 1. ancient 2. festival 3. fall 4. started 5. listen 6. imprisoned 7. love 8. letter 9. religion 10. centuries 11. celebrated

Task 5: 1…. will be examined (by the dentist) …. 2…are … 3….run as/so fast as/ faster than…. 4…..import hundreds of cars …. 5…. (that) she forgot/had forgotten... 6. “Where are you going?” 7…. stole my car … 8…. has not /hasn’t seen Dato… 9. …if he often went/goes… 10….not to come home late. 11….have invited Mary. 12…are being painted.

Task 6: 1. was watering 2. knocked 3. hopped 4. started 5. was barking /barking
6. adopted 7. was/had been killed 8. is nominated/has been nominated

Tuesday, June 23, 2009

sample research paper

In this sample research paper we examined how to teach children in alaska how to fish using manaq instead regular of fishing by real and rod and reel

The article contain introduction steps conclusion


I live in Chevak, a small village on the west coast of Alaska. Most of the fishing that is done in Chevak is with using what we call “manaq’s”. I would like to introduce to the children how fishing can be done with a rod and reel. I am sure that not all of the children have seen an actual rod and reel because the people in Chevak usually use the traditional manaq’s made at home by their parents or older siblings. I would also like for the children to experience actual manaqing at a nearby slough with the permission of their parents.

Step One- What the children already know.
My objectives in this project are to teach the children about manaqing vs. rod and reel fishing. I want them to be able to see that both tools are used for the same thing, which is to catch fish. Now in order to find out what they know about fishing I would ask them during out circle time what they know. I would also read two books to them, one would be about ice fishing in Greenland, and the other would be about fishing with a rod and reel. I want the children to be involved with authentic tasks by doing activities such as making miniature manaq’s, fishing for plastic fish in the water play area, drawing pictures, using props, or dolls with warm clothing in the dramatic play area, and to go on a well planned fishing outing to a nearby slough for the children to experience what it actually feels like to catch a tom cod or smelt. This would take place in the winter time, when the ice is safe to be on.
By using these activities the children may pose questions such as:
How does a manaq look compared to a rod and reel?
What do you need when you fish with a manaq or a rod and reel?
What kinds of fish can you catch in Chevak with a manaq?
What kinds of fish are caught with a rod and reel?
What do they know about the sizes of the fish that they know about?
Which fish is bigger or smaller?
What is it like to experience actual manaqing?

Step Two: What the Children Need to Know
By using the questions above I will get a better idea of how to put each activity together for the week. I know that most of the children already know how a manaq looks, but not all of them. I would also know that most of the children may not have seen an actual rod and reel or fishing tackle. Activities such as using construction paper with pre-cut warm clothing, and magazines with food and other things, and the children can also make miniature manaq’s can be added to the curriculum. Parent volunteers can bring their fish into the classroom for the children to compare and contrast.

Step Three: How I Plan to Use The Information Gathered for the Children
I could bring an actual manaq and a rod and reel to the classroom to let the children see the differences in each fishing tool, and also include asking questions about what is needed on a fishing trip. Fishing tackle without the hooks at the end would be included for this in order for the children to see what they look like. Using constructions paper, I would cut out small hats, coats, boots, snow pants, mittens, and have the children cut out pictures of food, fish and whatever else that they think they should bring on a fishing trip. I would then ask parent volunteers who have recently gone fishing to bring their catch to our Head Start to show the children the different fish caught with a manaq. I would bring pictures of salmon and halibut for the rod and reel fish that are caught because these would be the fish that I chose to focus on. This would give the children the opportunity to compare and contrast the fish. We would also measure the fish with a ruler, put the measurements on a large construction paper with the name of the fish next to the measurement. The children will make miniature manaq’s using string, yarn, tongue suppressors, and cut out a fish from construction paper to put at the end of a string. At the end of the week, with the parents permission and enough volunteers, the children would go out on a fishing trip using manaq’s, but only if there is enough volunteers to accompany us!

By observing the children during the activities, I will be able to see how much they know about manaqing vs. rod and reel fishing. I can document their reactions and replies that they have made from the activities that they have done. I will be able to see how well they can recall the difference between the two kinds of fishing tools. The children will be able to see the actual manaq compared to the rod and reel. I will ask them how they are different. I can also document their reactions when they get to see actual tom cods, devil fish, and flat fish. Other fish will be brought into the classroom if available, such as pike or lush fish. If salmon or halibut are not available, I can bring pictures of them into the classroom. They will compare and contrast them, which I can document, or put into my notes. When they make their “play” fishing manaq’s, I can see how well the students can use scissors, trace a fish, tie the yarn, and also see how well they can put the fish at the end of the yarn. During each activity I can write notes of how the children interacted, what they said, how they did a certain project, etc. This way, I can look back and write observation notes for the children whom I took notes on and I can put them into their NLCA “Northern Lights Child Assessment” as well as use them to discuss to the parents during parent/teacher conferences about their child and be able to give examples about what they have learned. During all these activities I would take pictures of what the children are doing in each activity. After a couple of weeks, a picture book will be set out in the classroom for all the children and parents to see. We can also look through these pictures to see what we have accomplished during our circle time and to see how well the children recall what we did!

Day 1:
Ask the children questions about what kind of fishing they know about. I will also read the two books, which are “Tobias Goes Ice Fishing” and “Gone Fishing”. This will show the children about how people from different places catch their fish, as well as what kinds of fish are caught, and illustrations of the fish.
Day 2:
Bring the rod and reel to class along with fishing tackle. Use construction paper with pre-cut warm clothing and magazines with food among other things to cut out and glue onto the paper.
Day 3:
Ask parents to bring fish into the classroom and show the children pictures of the fish that are not available.
Day 4:
Make miniature manaq’s and take the children out on a fishing trip, with the parents permission.

Conclusion and Summary:
I have not done this project in the classroom, but strongly believe that it can be part of the curriculum at our Head Start! Using Piaget’s three kinds of knowledge was practiced in this curriculum.
The logico-mathematical knowledge was obtained when they compared and contrasted the manaq vs. the rod and reel. The children also got to measure the fish and see the differences in their appearances. They also practiced this measure of knowledge by making the miniature manaq’s.
The social knowledge was obtained when the children got to see an actual manaq and an actual rod and reel. Now they will know what each one is and what they are called. They also learned the names of the fish that are caught, such as tom cods, devil fish, smelt, salmon, halibut, etc. Parents were also invited to volunteer in the classroom and on our fishing trip. With each activity the children got to interact with each other, with other children, and with the parents who would have volunteered. A picture book would have been included a couple of weeks later to have the children parents and volunteers to recall what they learned and accomplished!
The physical knowledge was obtained by the children getting to see the fish that the parents would bring into the classroom. During our fishing trip, the children would also get to see first hand on how a fish looks while fishing with a manaq.

Monday, June 15, 2009

gre vocab quiz

In this gre vocab quiz

Fill the blank space with the correct form of the word

1Those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are reported to be more ______ to developing heart attack and stroke.
A _ vulpine B_ voluble C_ valid D_ vulnerable

2 so many _______ properties as a result of the high number of forecloses,

A_ vague B_ vacant C_ vapid D_ vehement

3_ others have for NOT being ____ in demanding that the solution be implemented

A_ veracious B_ verdant C_ vehement D_vernal

4_ Jennifer Capriati held off the _______ of Kim Clijsters in a final set of 22 games

A_ vagary B_ verve C_ voyeur D_ vortex .

5_ the late 60's when idealism was in _____

A_ vogue B_ vain C_ voracious D_viscous

6_must be ______ about screening and monitoring their patients

A_ virile B_virtual C_ vigilant D_virulent

Franz Liszt is best known today for________ compositions for piano and his orchestral suites.

A_visage B_ vixen C_virtuoso D_ voyeur

in the following sentences chose the meaning of the word in a given sentence
8_it may turn out that our voracious demand for electricity is what could keep us dangerously dependent on foreign energy


A_fluctuate B_life-threatening C_very eager D well-founded

9_ all owners of vacant houses will be required to pay for property insurance as well as submit a maintenance plan.

vacant means
A_ spacious B_cheap C_ Empty D_Dull

for more tests see the other pages of the blog

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Wednesday, June 3, 2009

TOEFL sample essay good student



It is difficult to define a good student, but we can imagine him or her to be one who is excellent in studies, good in co-curricular activities, obedient to his teachers and respectful to all those older than him or her. Maybe, such paragons of virtue do not exist in real life, and if they do then they would n`t be much fun to know.

However, without sacrificing our sense of fun and adventure or socialists, we can at least try to inculcate some of the good qualities of an ideal student. First of all, excellence in academics is something we should all strive for. After all, learning is the prime objective of attending school. Secondly, for the development of an all-round personality, participation in co-curricular activities and a certain degree of proficiency in them is essential. Sports and games keep our bodies healthy and teach us the value of team spirit. Dramatics, debates, elocution, etc., teach us the valuable art of public-speaking.

We should obey and respect our elders because they have more knowledge and experience than us and can teach us so much. We should try to acquire good habits – only then will we be loves and respected by all.

It is very easy to choose the wrong path and go astray and very difficult to follow the right direction, but we can do so if we are sincere, have faith in ourselves, and try hard enough. We should all strive to be good students – a good example to others and a pride to our parents and teachers.

I hope that you like this Toefl Sample essay more english samples soon

Tuesday, June 2, 2009

network tutorials and peer to peer communication

Basic Network tutorial

Networking evolves to support current and future application. The OIS reference model organizes network functions into seven categories called layers. Data flows from upper-level user applications to lower-level bits transmitted over network media. Peer-to-peer functions use encapsulation and de-encapsulation to layer interfaces. Most network manager tasks configure the lower three layers. The enterprise is a corporation, agency, school, or other ogranization that will tie together its data, communication, computing, and file servers.
Developments on the enterprise network include:
• LANs interconnected to provide access to computers or file servers in other locations.
• End-user needs for higher bandwidth on the LANs.
• Relaying technologies for WAN service.

Layer Functions
Each layer of the OSI model serves a specific function. Those functions are defined by the OSI and can be used by any network products vendor. The functions are:
1. Application – The application layer provides network services to user applications. For example, a word processing application is serviced by file transfer services at this layer.
2. Presentation – This layer provides data representation and code formatting. It ensures that the data that arrives from the network can be used by the application, and it ensures that information sent by the application can be transmitted on the network.
3. Session – This layer establishes, maintains, and manages sessions between applications.
4. Transport – This layer segements and reassembles data into a data stream. This layer uses the TCP protocol.
5. Network – This layer determines the best way to move data from one place to another. The router operates at this layer. This layer uses the Internet Protocol addressing scheme.
6. Data link – This layer provides physcial transmission across the medium. It handles error notification, network topology, and flow control. This layer uses the Media Access Control (MAC) address.
7. Physical – This layer provides the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional means for activating and maintaining the physical link between systems. This layer uses the physical media like twisted pair, coaxial, and fiber-optic cable.
Host Layers: provide accurate data delivery between computers.
Media Layers: control physcial delivery of messages over the network.

Peer to Peer Communication
Each layer uses its own layer protocol to communicate with its peer layer in the other system. Each layer’s protocol exchanges information, called protocol data units (PDUs), between peer layers. A given layer can use a more specific name for its PDU. For example, in TCP/IP the transport layer of TCP communicates with the peer TCP function using segments. This peer-layer protocol communication is achieved by using the services of the layers below it. The layer below any current layer provides its services to the current layer. Each lower-layer service takes upper-layer information as part of the lower layer PDUs it exchanges with its layer peer.
Thus, the TCP segments become part of the network layer packets (also called datagrams) exchanged between IP peers. In turn, the IP packets must become part of the data link frames exchanged between directly connected devices. Ultimately, these frames must become bits as the data is finally transmitted by the physical-layer protocol using hardware.

Data Encapsulation
Each layer depends on the service function of the ISO/OSI layer below it. To provide this service, the lower layer uses encapsulation to put the PDU from the upper layer into its data field; then it can add whatever headers and trailers the layer will use to perform its function.
For example, the network layer provides a service to the transport layer, and the transport layer presents “data” to the internetwork subsystem. The network layer has the task of moving that data through the internetwork. It accomplishes this task by encapsulating the data within a header. This header contains information required to complete the transfer, such as source and destination logical addresses.
The data link layer in turn provides a service to the network layer. It encapsulates the network layer information in a frame. The frame header contains information required to complete the data link functions.  For example, the frame header contains physcial addresses.
The physcial layer also provides a service to the data link layer. This service includes encoding the data link frame into a pattern of ones and zeros for transmission on the medium (usually a wire).
Data Encapsulation Example
As networks perform services for users, the flow and packaging of the information changes. In this example of internetworking, five conversion steps occur:
Step 1: As a user sends an email message, its alphanumeric characters are converted to use the internetwork. This is the data.
Step 2: One change packages the message “data” for the internetwork transport. By using segments, the transport function ensures that the message hosts at both ends of the e-mail system can reliably communicate.
Step 3: The next change prepares tha data so they can use the internetwork by putting the data into a packet or datagram that contains a network header with source and destination logical addresses. These addresses help network devices send the packets across the network along a chosen path.
Step 4: Each network device must put the packet into a frame. The frame allows connection to the next directly connected network device on the link. Each device in the chosen network path requires framing to connect to the next device.
Step 5: The frame must be converted into a pattern of 1s and 0s for transmission on the medium (usually a wire). Some clocking function enables the devices to distinguish these bits as they tranverse the medium.The medium on the physical internetwork can vary along the path used. For example, the email message can originate on a LAN, cross a campus backbone, and go out a WAN link until it reaches its destination on another remote LAN.